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- (+)sense RNA (plus-sense RNA):
- A virus with a
single-stranded RNA genome of the same polarity ('sense') as mRNA.
- (-)sense RNA (minus-sense RNA):
- A virus with a
single-stranded RNA genome of the opposite polarity ('sense') as mRNA.
- Abortive Infection:
- When a virus infects a cell (or
host), but cannot complete the full replication cycle, i.e. a
- Acute Infection:
- Relatively brief infections, i.e. a few
days to a few weeks, following which the virus is usually eliminated
completely from the body by the immune system.
- A large a diverse group of viruses,
taxonomically unrelated which are classically transmitted by arthropod
vectors, e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, etc.
- The stage of replication during which all the
structural components come together at one site in the cell and the
basic structure of the virus particle is formed.
- The binding of a virus particle to a specific
receptor on the surface of a host cell.
- A protein shell comprising the main structural
unit of a virus particle.
- Chronic Infection:
- The converse of acute infections, i.e.
prolonged and stubborn. Caused by viruses which are able to persist in
- Complement fixation (CF):
- An assay for detecting the
presence of antibodies reactive against a particular antigen, e.g. a
- A lipid membrane enveloping a virus particle.
- Fusion Protein:
- The protein(s) on the surface of a virus
particle responsible for fusion of the virus envelope with cellular
- Gene expression:
- An important stage of viral replication
at which virus genetic information is expressed: one of the major
control points in replication.
- Genome replication:
- The stage of viral replication at
which the virus genome is copied to form new progeny genomes.
- An assay used for certain
types of viruses which are able to agglutinate red blood cells.
Haemagglutination-inhibition records blocking of this process by
antibodies, and thus, the presence of antibodies against the virus.
- Latent Infection:
- Viruses which are able to down-regulate
their gene expression can establish a truly latent state, i.e. with
strictly limited gene expression and without ongoing virus
replication. Latent virus infections typically persist for the entire
life of the host.
- Matrix Protein:
- A structural protein of a virus particle
which underlies the envelope and links it to the core.
- The stage of viral replication at which a
virus particle becomes infectious.
- Molecular epidemiology:
- The use of nucleotide sequence
information to study the diversity and distribution of virus
- Messenger RNA, translated on ribosomes to produce
- Blocking of virus infection by
antibodies; also, an assay which measures this.
- The core of a virus particle consisting of
the genome plus a complex of proteins.
- The stage of viral replication at which the
virus genome enters the cell.
- Persistent Infection:
- Infections in which ongoing virus
replication occurs, but the virus adjusts its replication and
pathogenicity so as to avoid killing host. They differ from chronic
infections in that whereas in chronic infections, the virus is usually
eventually cleared by the host (unless the infection proves fatal), in
persistent infections, the virus may continue to be present and to
replicate in the host for its entire lifetime.
- A long polypeptide encoding several mature
proteins which are subsequently released by protease cleavage.
- A specific molecule on the surface of a cell
which is used by a virus for attachment.
- The stage of viral replication at which virus
particles escape the infected cell.
- The ability of a virus to infect specific cell
or tissue types.
- The stage of viral replication at which
structural proteins are lost and the virus genome is exposed to the
- An organism responsible for transmitting a
pathogen from one host to another, e.g. a mosquito. (In molecular
biology, a molecule used to clone nucleic acid sequences).
- Structurally mature, extracellular virus
- Virus attachment protein:
- The protein on the surface of a
virus particle responsible for binding the receptor.
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